Can Authenticity Be Faked?
In a world of saturated with advertising and influencers, people are caving something ‘real.’
Authenticity has become somewhat of a buzzword over the past few years, and marketers have been scrambling to boast about their authenticity, in their marketing copy.
For a good reason, as recent data suggests that 85% of shoppers consider authenticity as an important aspect when making a purchasing decision.
Brand trust has declined because of the contrast between the brands' promises and what they deliver.
As a result, consumers are becoming more doubtful of brand claims. Consumers do not trust brands that portray themselves as perfect, and they instead want honesty and transparency.
What is Authenticity?
There are multiple interpretations of authentic, real, honest, truthful, ‘integrity, actual, genuine, essential, verified and sincere; and is the foundation for building trust.
“Consumers are faced with the challenge of finding authentic happiness in a world of mass-produced and hence inauthentic commodities.” (Jantzen, 2012)
The History of Authenticity
Music academics have explored authenticity, both with cultural performances and modern music such as folk, rock, rap and pop music.
Authentic music performance is for the sake of self-enjoyment or ability in the art, whilst commercial endeavours are inauthentic. Being an artist for the sake of the arts rather than doing it to make a commercial profit.
Doing something solely for profit considered inherently inauthentic (why consumers often perceive brands as inauthentic).
There are two schools of thought: romanticism — where authenticity subscribes to tradition and cherishes the past, or a modernist approach to authenticity — grounded in experimentation and progress, and the belief true artists must move forward.
In the arts, modernism is ‘Avant-Garde’ — the French term for ‘in advance’ — describing any work or style considered in its own time to be radical, consciously breaking from earlier traditions.
The tourism literature also widely discusses authenticity, as it has become a primary concern for consumers seeking experiences. Consumers often research their destinations and have a set of expectations, preferences and beliefs about what shall occur.
Objective Authenticity — Virtue
Objective authenticity is an assessment placed on or judgement placed on an object that is what it claims, and it is genuine.
Such as a real Rolex watch, versus a counterfeit.
A truthful representation of what they say they are.
Consumers perceive an object as authentic based on their judgement of its sincerity. This perspective of authenticity has the notion that craftsmen's products are primarily motivated by professionalism, tradition, and love for what they are doing and not profit.
Consumers seek uniqueness, originality, and genuineness. Marketing academics also describe this as “virtue” — the purity of motive to be an expert and being true to a set of morals.
Multiple forms of Authenticity
Authenticity is not just a judgement of an object’s legitimacy or a person’s intentions. The search for the authentic self is another important goal of consumption and authentic experiences within consumption communities.
“Multiple forms of authenticity are concurrently constructed in a single consumption context. This is in respect to the object or experience itself, the self, and the community.” (Leigh et al., 2006)
The authenticity of the self — Control
Customers search for meaning through consumption — their desire for authentic brands is an identity creation activity.
People want to feel like their ‘real’ selves, so immerse themselves in what they believe are authentic experiences, reinforcing a desired sense of self.
The transferal of authenticity onto an object or experience is vital to an individual’s hopes of recognition as authentic, as this process validates the authenticator and the subject. The marketing literature also refers to this process as a control — mastering one’s self and environment.
Consumers deliberately put themselves in situations where they can achieve this goal.
This process is called self-authentication.
Self-authentication revitalises self-meaning, which enhances an individual’s well-being. It is an embodied sensation of knowing, to find one’s true self. It is a “doing process” felt within, a gateway to existential authenticity.
Existential authenticity exists an individual’s experience, rather than something measured or judged. Being true to oneself.
The concept originates in philosophy and is common in tourism, where activities achieve a state of being. It can be based on an individual level or achieved in others' presence through feeling like “real” community member through a collective sense of self.
Existential authenticity helps people feel more authentic and more freely self-expressed than in everyday life.
This collective sense of self strengthens social bonds between community members, an atmosphere where individuals may experience their ‘true self’ in other community members' presence. Individuals obtain authenticity through sharing and communicating enjoyment with others.
Authenticity as a Community — Connection
Customers seek authenticity in communities of consumption, often those that are based around a central brand. Collective gatherings supply a context for legitimisation, self-validation, and authenticity. A consumer’s collective identity significantly contributes to their individual quest for authenticity.
“Authentic consumers embrace the subculture’s own hierarchies and definitions of what is authentic and legitimate.” (Leigh et al., 2006)
Authenticity dictates who is and is not part of the community.
Authentic subculture members must have legitimate intentions and should embrace subcultural values as a lifestyle. An individual’s role performance in their subculture helps them self-authenticate through proving commitment to the community and genuine membership.
Actions perceived as breaking community norms result in a loss of authenticity.
Can you fake authenticity? The subjective nature of Authenticity
Individuals seek authenticity in a range of products, brands or experiences. Debates about authenticity within subcultures are common, usually concerned with and the nature of authentic membership and authentic behaviours. Being versus Doing.
Community members judge each other based on their intentions and acts. Members who adopt a subculture's accessories without embracing its lifestyle and values considered “doing” it — putting on a front to look the part.
“Authentic” subculture members consider this as inauthentic, as their identity is not a reflection of the true self. In contrast, authentic members are those that are engaged in “being.”
By paying their dues over the years, subculture members earn authentic status.
But authenticity is subjective to each individual, dependent on their interpretation. Intentions can seem authentic to some, authentic to others—an individual’s opinion based on their associations based on their unique experience and knowledge.
People match an object with the idea created by their beliefs and stereotypes. The subjectivity of an individual’s goals allows them to find authenticity and objects which others consider fake.
Consumers co-create the authenticity of a brand or experience, and the meaning is dependent on their personal and unique understanding of what it means to be authentic.
“Authenticity’s association with reality, truth, and believability is subjective and allows the term to be used in different ways.” (Kolar & Zabkar, 2010)
Authenticity for Marketers
Authenticity is an important concept for marketers to understand, as consumers are more likely to trust authentic brands. First, how do brands communicate their authenticity?
To enhance feelings of authenticity, marketers of brands relating to products or services should aim to come across as more “human” in advertising and promotion.
Thus, enabling customers to recognise the characteristic values of the brand. Customers associate warmth, competence and trust with authenticity.
Second, consumers want to feel authentic. A goal of consuming products, brands and experiences is self-authentication, enhancing peoples’ well-being.
“Brand authenticity is a subjective evaluation of genuineness ascribed to a brand by a consumer.” (Napoli et al., 2014)
Marketers must adapt their approach for their specific brand in specific contexts and be aware of their customer’s unique interpretation of authenticity.
It is important to understand the intricacies of the consumption communities related to their product, service or industry before enhancing perceptions of authenticity.
Brand community is everywhere. Some examples are Facebook groups, YouTube channels, blogs, and forums. Marketers should engross themselves in these communities to gain an understanding of what is authentic.
Self-Authentication for rock concert consumers
The image below is a representation of how rock concert consumers self-authenticate.
This is from an article published from my thesis in the Australasian Marketing Journal. It illustrates the process by which a concert experience increases the wellbeing of customers through the self-authentication process.
The band, fans, and venue co-create the experience, which in turn legitimises the consumer’s quest for authenticity at rock concerts.
“Trust (like authenticity) is associated with consistency, competence, honesty, fairness, responsibility, helpfulness and benevolence.” (Morgan & Hunt, 1994)
Despite consumers having different goals, experiences, and expectations of what is authentic, one thing stays consistent — the desire for something real, true, and genuine.
If customers perceive a brand as authentic, then they find them more trustworthy. People who trust you are far more likely to do business with you.
Thank you for reading.
I hope you find this useful and learnt something about authenticity.
Do not ‘fake it until you make it’ — be yourself!